(Automated External Defibrillator)AED
Helping the New Nurse learn the Basics
of EKG Reading and when to apply it.

Collection of the most common Cardiac
Rhythms seen in the Clinical Setting
Sinus Rhythms, AV Blocks, Atrial
Rhythms, Ventricular Rhythms, PEA,
Copyright Dear Nurses All Rights Reserved  
Ventricular Tachycardia is identified as
a Lethal Cardiac Rhythm.
Learning to identify this
arrhymia its
treatment and causes is beneficial to
the New Nurse.
The heart is a pump that works to supply blood to all the body’s
organs. The heart also has an electrical conduction system which
stimulates contraction of the heart's chambers. This can be seen
in the EKG.  
The EKG provides helpful information about  any cues to heart
problems like a
myocardial infarction  (heart attack).
Here are some examples of  cardiac rhythms :
Ventricular Tachycardia,
Torsades de pointes
Ventricular fibrillation,
PEA , Asystole ,
Third degree AV block

Reperfusion therapy is a form of treatment used for the patient who
has had a Myocardial Infarction.
TPA (Thrombolytic Plasminogen
Activator) is used to reperfuse the heart’s blood supply where the
Occlusion has occurred.
Hand washing is the
key to preventing the
spread of infection

The heart is a pump that pumps blood all around the body.
If the heart becomes damaged for any reason, it will be
unable to perform its normal functions.   

It has an electrical conduction system which works to stimulate
contraction of its chambers. The
EKG reflects both normal and
abnormal function of the electrical system. The SA ( sinoatrial
node is the
pacemaker of the heart. The electric impulse  
which initiates contraction, starts in the SA node which is
located in the
right atrium. If the SA node becomes
damaged for any reason, the AV node attempts to take over the
job of the SA node.

12 lead EKG is a very important diagnostic tool.
It is able to detect damage to the heart when a myocardial
infarction occurs.
Interpretation of the EKG can reveal location of the MI, ischemia,
and many more.

In addition to a 12 lead EKG there are other cardiac studies that
are done to help confirm a diagnosis.

The patient who is having heart problems, is more than likely to
Chest pain, shortness of breath, diaphoresis, hypotension,
nausea and vomiting.
The EKG is a quick way to help establish a
The 12 LEAD EKG is a diagnostic tool
Chest Pain
Chest pain may be sharp, dull, feel like
pressure in the chest and radiate to
shoulders and jaw.
Regardless of the type,
chest pain
should be assessed and documented.
Intervention is usually done per AHA
The Ejection Fraction is the amount of
blood ejected each time the heart
Cardiac Catheterization is the test
done to evaluate the Ejection Fraction
Cardioversion is a form of
normal rhythm.

Defibrillation is a form of
electrical shock treatment
used to change the heart
from a life threatening
rhythm to a normal one.  
Click on the
thumbnail pics
to enlarge
please enjoy the
video below

Sessions 16 EKG
Heart's Electrical Conduction System
The sinoatrial node (SA Node) is referred
to, as the pacemaker of the
heart. It
stimulates the
contraction of the atria and
is similar in function to when a light bulb
is turned on. The stimulus from the SA
Node, travels to the AV Node
atrioventricular node) which in turn
stimulates contraction of the
This is just the beginning, learn more by
reading "EKG series
What is Wrong with
this EKG".
The New Nurse
recently AHA guidelines
have changed for CPR?
Instead of:
A  - airway
B  -
C  - chest compressions
we now have
C -  
chest compressions
A -  airway
B -  breathing
Amiodarone is an antiarrhythmic drug which
is used for treating both atrial and ventricular
arrhythmias. They include conditions such as
atrial fibrillation,
ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation.
Its side effect includes
Amiodarone is usually given orally or IV.

Beta Blockers
A group of drugs effective in treating conditions
such as hypertension, atrial fibrillation, cardiac
problems. They include
Atenolol, Propranolol,
Metoprolol. They are given orally or IV.

AED (Automatic External Defibrillator)
has continued to grow in popularity
and is now used in a number of places
including but not confined to :
Churches, airports, malls, offices,
hotels and restaurants. It is used to
treat sudden
cardiac arrest.
This implies that the heart has come to
a sudden stop and the vital
organs are
then deprived of
blood supply.

Lethal rhythms such as, Ventricular
Fibrillation or Pulseless Ventricular
Tachycardia are usually identified.
Defibrillation to restore the heart to its
normal rhythm, is then necessary.

This portable external device which is
conveniently sized and light in weight,
can be brought to the scene of the
patient in
Ventricular Fibrillation,

Once the box is opened and power on,
instructions are given step by
step, making the use of this equipment
very easy.  Pads are attached, It
analyses the cardiac rhythm, then
advices when to shock, and when to

It is very important to note that the
person operating the equipment should
ensure the
safety of others. Typically  
the operator calls out "All clear" to be
sure no one is touching the patient
and avoids being shocked. Trained
personnel usually operate this
equipment. AHA has guidelines in
place for the correct use of this

has grown in use and is now available
in a number of different places.
TOPICS A - B  C-D  TOPICS E - H  TOPICS I - P  TOPICS Q - Z     Bulletin Board  
                                                                                                    SITE INDEX

SESSIONS 2 Tasks That Seem Unimportant

Sessions 2 - Tasks That Seem Unimportant
addresses tasks that may seem meaningless in
the clinical setting, but are of great value.

Some nurses may be assigned to tasks that are
perceived as unimportant, but there are always
lessons to be learnt, if we look deeper.

TOPICS INCLUDE: 1 What is the lesson to be
learnt? 2 Can you change your thinking? 3The
patient with stroke, 4 Liver failure, 5 Heparin
Therapy, 6 Brain surgery, 7 What can you learn
about Urine/Feces?
Learn more:
                SESSIONS 57  

1 An overview of hydration and
2 Lost in the desert
3 A long plane flight, dehydration  
 and DVT
Click here for
Sessions 57